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Defendants contended that, as a matter of law, this admission meant that no separate theory of negligent entrustment of the vehicle could be pursued at trial, due to unavoidable evidentiary prejudice from such a showing. By making this admission, the employer sought to keep out prejudicial evidence of the employee's prior motor vehicle accidents, under Evidence Code section The court noted that it still remained to be shown whether the employer had given adequate or inadequate training to the employee.

Defendants filed a writ petition in this court in which they all claimed that the trial court improperly denied the motion for summary adjudication.

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We issued an order to show cause why the relief should not be granted and stayed further proceedings in the trial court. We also obtained supplemental briefing on the effect of the enactment of Civil Code section It is appropriate for this court to review defendants' petition for a writ of mandate to avoid a potential trial on nonactionable claims.

Superior Court Cal. Atlantic Richfield Co. Lindstrom v. Hertz Corp. Separate counts in a single pleading may be summarily adjudicated. Superior Court 12 Cal. The issue of whether a defendant's negligence was a legal cause of an alleged injury is also subject to summary adjudication. Merrill v. Navegar, Inc. To resolve these issues, we first outline negligent entrustment authority, then apply it to the employer-employee context, and address the evidentiary concerns involving an employee's prior accidents. Therefore, this application for writ relief does not properly include either the employee Solis or the truck owner, the leasing company Penske, because they have not made any essential admission of liability as an employer, for the reasons we will outline in part III, post.

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See Veh. With respect to the entitlement to summary adjudication in favor of the employer itself, defendants present this issue as whether negligent entrustment should properly be viewed as an independent tort by the employer, subject to separate proof, or instead as a theory of vicarious liability subsumed in the overall negligence cause of action, which may be disposed of as a matter of law based upon the pretrial admission of respondeat superior liability. We next outline the case law guidelines on this common law theory of liability for negligence, with attention to the causation element of negligence in particular.

These theories of liability all seek the same award of damages for wrongful death. They will not include punitive damages, nor any other special or separately arising damages to the heirs that might conceivably be separately attributable to the acts of the employer in negligently entrusting a vehicle to an allegedly accident-prone driver. Krouse v. Graham 19 Cal. Tort Damages Cont. Bar 2d ed.

A commentator has outlined the significant concerns regarding potentially prejudicial proof of damages as to an employer as follows:. These jurisdictions reason that the employer, though possibly guilty of a separate tort, is still only liable for the employee's negligence. According to these jurisdictions, the negligent entrustment action is abandoned because the plaintiff cannot hope to recover anymore [sic] than what the defendant already conceded to under respondeat superior.

Collateral evidence necessary to establish negligent entrustment, therefore, becomes unnecessary, irrelevant and inflammatory. Bunch Mo. It must be noted that the common law doctrine of negligent entrustment can arise in many factual contexts, as well as employment. We distinguish on their facts those cases that have arisen in the nonemployment context e. Accordingly, we do not seek to decide the broad issue of the overall separate nature of the negligent entrustment tort in any its other variations, as compared to the underlying negligence of the person entrusted with the vehicle.

Our issue is more narrow and our focus is upon the employment factual context here, involving the employer's alleged negligent entrustment of a vehicle to a properly licensed driver who was not known to have health problems that would interfere with driving, but who had had known prior accidents, thus giving rise to the evidentiary concerns addressed by Evidence Code section Additionally, we have an undisputed fact before us that the employer admits on a pretrial basis to respondeat superior liability for any negligent driving by its employee.

The question is whether there is a rule of law that entitled the employer in this case to summary adjudication in its favor on the negligent entrustment theory of liability against it. That [name of driver]'s incompetence or unfitness to drive was a substantial factor in causing harm to [name of plaintiff]. From this instruction, it appears that negligent operation of the vehicle that was entrusted is a necessary element of the claim of negligent entrustment. For example, if the employer entrusts a vehicle to a known accident-prone employee, arguably negligently, but that employee never injures anyone in the course and scope of employment, has the employer still been negligent?

What is the extent to which the employer is actually a joint tortfeasor with the employee who was driving in such a way as to inflict injuries? Was the employer's negligent entrustment a separate set of negligent acts by a separate actor, directly causing identifiable separate damage that the plaintiff should be able to prove, regardless of a pretrial admission of an employer's vicarious liability? Alternatively, does any admitted employer status merely create derivative liability for the same injury caused by the employee? These questions can arise at different stages of the proceedings, depending on when the employer seeks to make an admission of vicarious liability for the employee's conduct.

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We are dealing here with a pretrial admission, intended to have the effect of avoiding the introduction of potentially prejudicial evidence of an employee's prior accidents. Allen v. Toledo, supra, Cal.

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Some cases have departed from the rule announced in Armenta, supra, 42 Cal. See, e. Johnson Cal. Specifically, we will next outline the Armenta authority and following cases, for the purpose of deciding whether the trial court in this case properly denied summary adjudication to the employer on the negligent entrustment theory. Moreover, even though proof remains to be made regarding whether the employee was actually negligent during the accident in question, there has been no showing on this record that the employer's admission of vicarious liability is not sufficiently final to dispose of the respondeat superior question as a matter of law.

The leading negligent entrustment case in the employment context, Armenta, supra, 42 Cal. Although the Supreme Court in that case reversed the judgment before it on instructional error grounds involving safety standards, its well-reasoned views on the evidentiary problems presented in that case the same as here, evidence of an employee's prior accidents were clearly meant to be binding on the lower courts faced with parallel fact situations.

Accordingly, we note our disagreement with the views expressed in an earlier case from Division 2 of this court, that the evidentiary holding of Armenta is merely dictum Syah, supra, Cal.

Instead, that holding was rendered by the Supreme Court as part of its rule of decision in Armenta, given the employer-employee factual context presented there, and in order to give guidance to the lower court upon remand, and it is binding on the lower courts. Armenta, supra, at pp.

Procedure 4th ed. Turning to the evidentiary rulings set out in Armenta, supra, 42 Cal. The first charged negligence on the part of Dale Churchill as driver of the truck, acting as agent and employee of his wife, Alece Churchill, and within the scope of his agency and employment. The second incorporated all the allegations of the first count, and contained the added allegations that Alece Churchill was herself negligent in entrusting the truck to her husband, she having actual knowledge that he was a careless, negligent and reckless driver.

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Defendants objected to the offered evidence because it was directed to an issue which had been removed from the case by the pleadings. After the objection was sustained, defendant Alece Churchill again admitted her liability for all damages sustained by plaintiffs in the event that her husband was found to be liable.

Based on that procedural scenario of developments during trial, the Supreme Court in Armenta, supra, 42 Cal. From its analysis of the pleadings, the Supreme Court drew these conclusions about the nature of the respective theories against the employer and the employee, which we find instructive here:. Plaintiffs' allegations in the two counts with respect to Alece Churchill merely represented alternative theories under which plaintiffs sought to impose upon her the same liability as might be imposed upon her husband.

Upon this legal issue concerning the liability of Alece Churchill for the tort, if any, of her husband, the admission of Alece Churchill was unqualified, as she admitted that Dale Churchill was her agent and employee and that he was acting in the course of his employment at the time of the accident. Based on this pleadings analysis in Armenta, no evidence of the employer's knowledge of the employee's prior accidents could properly be admitted, in light of the exclusionary rule of prior case law, now codified at Evidence Code section , enacted in Armenta, supra, 42 Cal.

Once the employer admittedly becomes vicariously liable for the negligent acts of the employee, there is no remaining basis at a future trial to attempt to prove the negligence of the employer itself, such as through knowledge of the employee's prior accidents, because the subject liability has already been adequately and completely established.

This represents an effort to promote judicial economy by avoiding unnecessary litigation. Comment to [Evid. Case law since Armenta, supra, 42 Cal. In Syah the court said that vicarious liability of the employer for the employee was not an issue before it, based on the jury's verdict that the employee-driver who caused the accident that injured plaintiff's decedent was not negligent, and the judgment as to the employee had become final. Syah, supra, Cal. However, judgment against the employer was upheld for the acts of entrusting the vehicle to the employee, who was apparently much too ill to drive on a regular basis.

In Syah, the appellate court declined to follow Armenta's teachings about the close relationship of these two negligence-based theories in the employment context, for two given reasons:. In the case under review, admission of evidence relating to the three prior incidents involving defendant, would have no such inflammatory effect. Smith [] Cal.

Court of Appeal, Fourth District, Division 1, California.

As previously noted, we find the reasoning in Syah is flawed on both points. First, an appellate court may not properly disregard Supreme Court authority in favor of a lower court ruling that it prefers i. Smith, supra, Cal. In Armenta, the Supreme Court ruled upon the application of vicarious liability rules when there is a difficult proof problem presented, concerning the issues now covered by Evidence Code section , and it had to reconcile those two competing doctrines.

This represented application and development of the common law, not a statement contrary to it. Syah, supra, at p. The lower courts are not authorized to depart from the statement in Armenta, supra, 42 Cal. Moreover, we disagree with the court's analysis in Syah, to the effect that the cited evidence was noninflammatory in nature. See Syah, supra, Cal. Moreover, the decision in Syah, supra, Cal.

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On 19 April , Plaintiff sent a second letter addressed to "General Manager," in which he again expressed interest in a promotion and stated, "I will presume that I will be considered for the next supervisory position. Plaintiff was the only black candidate. The candidates completed the process in late August or early September The standardized tests have been used by Defendant since the s and are designed to be non-biased. The tests are purchased from the creators and are scored in accordance with the testing companies' instructions, with the highest score being the best score.